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"Attar has discovered all seven cities of love; we are but at the beginning. "

~ Rumi ~

During not so close years

Daf has been regarded as an Iranian sacred musical instrument in the recent years. This tradition has still remained unchanged.

In recent years

Daf has presently flourished such that it is being included in many Persian traditional music bands nowadays. Due to the growing demands of Daf learners, the necessity of creation comprehensive Daf teaching methodology in an academic way has greatly been tangible and inevitable.

In the recent years, due to this requirement and by studying teaching methodologies of Iranian and non-Iranian musical instruments as well as various kinds of percussion musical instruments, a book was gradually compiled by Masoud Habibi after some Iranian masters and experts of Persian music such as Mr. Hossein Dehlavi and Mr. Kamal Pour Torab as well as Supreme Council of Music affiliated to Tehran University of Art had made their comments.

The notes in frame drums and Tonbak (Persian goblet drum) are placed in three horizontal lines. However, because of the metal ringlets attached to the Daf, the necessity of creation an independent line was required so that the sounds of the metal ringlets can be separately shown. To fulfil this requirement, Masoud Habibi added a fourth line with a bit space above the third one.

Teaching Rhythm and Daf

The exponential increase in people's interest in playing Daf domestically and internationally as well as the widespread reception of music masters and students to the three-volume book called "The Modern Method for Playing the Daf" motivated Masoud Habibi to compile another new collection with up-to-date contents and framework so that a new path can be opened to Daf learners more systematically and scientifically. In this new collection, not only have the defects existed in the previous collection been identified and removed, but writing style of some symbols has also been revised, and more diverse practices and lessons have been introduced to enhance learners' understanding and proficiency levels in playing rhythms.

In addition to this, to remove the problem of language understanding for keen foreign Daf learners, the translation of every book has been made in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish, available on for download.

Teaching Rhythm and Daf - Volume One

The first volume of the book called "Teaching Rhythm and Daf" contains basic concepts introducing the Daf, the style of the notation, theory of rhythms and preliminary practices.

To download the book in the languages available here, click on your required language.

The Modern Method for Playing the Daf

The collection of '' New method of Daf playing '' is the result of great attempt to compile applicable methods of Daf. Note taking technique for this collection is a completely new technique. Teaching this instrument like other ones has been passing generation by generation and in recent years, several experts have tried to perform note taking method with the help of one-line ore three-line stave.